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Minnesota Reflections

Glossary of Terms

The following terms are used to populate the Item Physical Format field. All of these terms are taken from the Getty Museum's Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) Online.

Accounts example. Accounts
Documents in which monies or goods received and paid or given out are recorded in order to permit periodic totaling. (AAT ID: 300145802)

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Advertisements example. Advertisements
Public notices or paid announcements, especially those in print. (AAT ID: 300193993)

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Aerial photographs example. Aerial photographs
Photographs of the earth taken from aircraft. Do not use for photographs of celestial bodies or astronomical phenomena. (AAT ID: 300128222)

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Affidavits example. Affidavits
Sworn statements in writing; especially made upon oath before an authorized magistrate or officer. (AAT ID: 300027594)

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Albumen prints example. Albumen prints
Photographic prints having albumen as the binder; always black-and-white, though they may be toned to a monochrome hue. (AAT ID: 300127121)

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Architectural drawings (visual works) example. Architectural drawings (visual works)
Drawings of architecture and architectural projects, whether the project was executed or not. The term may also refer to any image in a two-dimensional medium that serves this same purpose, including prints and computer images. (AAT ID: 300034787)

NOTE: Blueprints and blue-line drawings should be entered as Architectural drawings.

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Atlases example. Atlases
Volumes of maps, with or without descriptive text, which may be issued to supplement or accompany texts or be published independently. (AAT ID: 300028053)

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Black-and-white photographs example. Black-and-white photographs
Refers to a broad class of photographs having images in gray tones, black, and white, and sometimes one hue (which can result from chemical processes used, including toning, or from aging). (AAT ID: 300128347)

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Books example. Books
Items comprising a collection of leaves of paper, parchment, wood, stiffened textile, ivory, metal tablets, or other flat material, that are blank, written on, or printed, and are strung or bound together in a volume. (AAT ID: 300028051)

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Booklets example. Booklets
Small books consisting of a few sheets that are glued, stitched, or stapled together between thin card or paper covers. (AAT ID: 300311670)

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Broadsides (notices) example. Broadsides (notices)
Sizeable single-sheet notices or advertisements printed on one or both sides, often chiefly textual rather than pictorial, and printed to be read unfolded. (AAT ID: 300026739)

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Bulletins example. Bulletins
A serial publication issued by an organization or society, especially a short account, alert, or report of public news or events issued by authority. (AAT ID: 300311679)

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Cabinet photographs example. Cabinet photographs
Mounted on cards and a larger alternative to the Cartes-de-visite. The larger size (approximately 6 ½ x 4 ¼ inches) was considered more appropriate for display, allowed for group portraits, and permitted the image to be retouched. Popular until World War I. (AAT ID: 300127131)

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Cartes-de-visite (card photographs) example. Cartes-de-visite (card photographs)
Refers to small-format photographs affixed to card stock. They were typically portraits and the image was a standard size of 3 ¼ x 2 ¼ inches. They went out of fashion in the 1870s. (AAT ID: 300127141)

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Catalogs example. Catalogs
Enumerations of items, such as a file of bibliographic records or a list of art objects, usually arranged systematically and with descriptive details; may be in book or pamphlet form, or on cards. (AAT ID: 300026059)

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Color photographs example. Color photographs
The broad class of photographs having images composed of more than one hue, plus the neutral tones. For photographs having a range of tones within one hue, see Black-and-white photographs. (AAT ID: 300128359)

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Color transparencies example. Color transparencies
Photographic images designed for viewing by transmitted light, composed of more than one hue, plus the neutral tones. (AAT ID: 300128364)

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Collodion prints example. Collodion prints
Photographic prints having collodion as the binder. (AAT ID: 300134696)

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Contact prints example. Contact prints
Photographic prints made by interfacing a negative and a sheet of photographic paper and exposing the paper with raw light. (AAT ID: 300127169)

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Contour maps example. Contour maps
Maps showing elevation and the configuration of the ground by the use of contour lines and usually lacking other detail. (AAT ID: 300028393)

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Cyanotypes (photographic prints) example. Cyanotypes (photographic prints)
Blue-toned photographic prints produced by the blueprint process. These do NOT include reproductive prints of architectural or other technical drawings; for these, use Architectural drawings. (AAT ID: 300134811)

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Daguerreotypes (photographs) example. Daguerreotypes (photographs)
Daguerreotypes produce a direct positive image on a silver-coated copper plate. They are often mounted in special cases lined with colored velvet or leather. (AAT ID: 300127181)

NOTE: Daguerreotypes are not to be confused with Tintypes which use a thin sheet of lacquered iron as the image support.

None currently listed in Minnesota Reflections.

Diaries example. Diaries
Refers to books containing the daily, personal accounts of the writer's own experiences, attitudes, and observations. Use Journals (accounts) when referring to an individual's or an organization's account of occurrences or transactions. (AAT ID: 300027112)

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Drawings (visual works) example. Drawings (visual works)
Visual works produced by drawing, which is the application of lines on a surface, often paper, by using a pencil, pen, chalk, or some other tracing instrument to focus on the delineation of form rather than the application of color. (AAT ID: 300033973)

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Engineering maps example. Engineering maps
Maps, usually maintained in the public works or engineering departments of a city, showing information such as street and rail rights of way, location of bridges, and grade separations; used for planning and executing engineering work in a locality. (AAT ID: 300028364)

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Gelatin silver prints example. Gelatin silver prints
Refers to photographic prints having gelatin as the binder, holding silver as the final image material; always black-and-white, though they may be toned to a monochrome hue. (AAT ID: 300128695)

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Greeting cards example. Greeting cards
Cards often imprinted with messages and suitable illustrations, sent or given on special occasions or holidays. (AAT ID: 300026778)

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Hymnals example. Hymnals
Books containing collections of church hymns. (AAT ID: 300026463)

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Instructional materials example. Instructional materials
Print or non-print materials used for the purpose of imparting knowledge, attitudes, or skills to others. (AAT ID: 300026367)

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Invitations example. Invitations
Engraved, printed, or written expressions requesting a person's company at a certain event at a given time and place. (AAT ID: 300027083)

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Journals (accounts) example. Journals (accounts)
Books containing accounts of an individual's or organization's occurrences or transactions, including records of financial transactions. Use Diaries when referring to personal accounts of the writer's experiences, attitudes, or observations. (AAT ID: 300027087)

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Lantern slides example. Lantern slides
Transparent positive image made or mounted on glass, usually (but not necessarily) photographic. Measurements: 3.25 to 3.5 inches by 4 inches. Lantern slides are projected onto a screen by means of a specialized projector. (AAT ID: 300134977)

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Leaflets (printed works) example. Leaflets (printed works)
Small printed works consisting of one small-sized leaf of paper folded and not stitched or bound, containing printed matter, chiefly for gratuitous distribution. (AAT ID: 300211825)

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Letters (correspondence) example. Letters (correspondence)
Pieces of correspondence that are somewhat more formal than memoranda or notes, usually on paper and delivered. (AAT ID: 300026879)

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Magazines (periodicals) example. Magazines (periodicals)
Periodicals containing articles, essays, poems, or other writings by different authors, usually on a variety of topics and intended for a general reading public or treating a particular area of interest for a popular audience. (AAT ID: 300215389)

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Manuscripts (document genre) example. Manuscripts (document genre)
Handwritten documents, particularly books and other documents created before the invention of the printing press. May also be used to distinguish certain documents from published or printed documents, such as typed personal letters or a typescript from which printed versions are made. (AAT ID: 300028569)

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Maps example. Maps
Refers to graphic or photogrammetric representations of the Earth's surface or a part of it, including physical features and political boundaries, where each point corresponds to a geographical or celestial position according to a definite scale or projection. The term may also refer to similar depictions of other planets, suns, other heavenly bodies, or areas of the heavens. (AAT ID: 300028094)

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Memorandums example. Memorandums
Documents recording information used for internal communication. (AAT ID: 300026906)

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Negatives (photographic) example. Negatives (photographic)
Photographs, usually on a transparent support, in which the tones or colors are reversed from their appearance in nature. This includes glass plate negatives. (AAT ID: 300127173)

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Newsletters example. Newsletters
Letters, reports, or other brief written communications that communicate news, particularly those written by societies or business organizations. Historically referred to serial publications consisting of one or a few printed sheets containing news and information of interest to the general public or to a special group. (AAT ID: 300026652)

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Newspapers example. Newspapers
Serials published at stated, frequent intervals, such as daily or weekly, and containing news, editorials, features, advertisements, and other items of current interest. (AAT ID: 300026656)

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Oral histories example. Oral histories
Works that record interviews conducted to preserve the recollections of persons whose experience or memories are representative or are of special historical or social significance. (AAT ID: 300202595)

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Paintings (visual works) example. Paintings (visual works)
Unique works in which images are formed primarily by the direct application of pigments suspended in oil, water, egg yolk, molten wax, or other liquid, arranged in masses of color, onto a generally two-dimensional surface. (AAT ID: 300033618)

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Pamphlets example. Pamphlets
Independent publications consisting of a few leaves of printed matter folded or fastened together but not bound, often with no cover or a paper cover. For smaller printed works, of one sheet folded and not stitched or bound, use Leaflets (printed works). (AAT ID: 300220572)

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Panoramas example. Panoramas
Refers generally to pictorial representations with very broad horizontal ranges of view. The term is also used specifically for photographs that show a wide view produced by a panoramic camera or by joining photographs together. (AAT ID: 300015537)

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Pattern books example. Pattern books
Books of designs or plans circulated or published to enable widespread copying. May also be used for unbound collections of drawings or prints which serve as artists' models. (AAT ID: 300026131)

NOTE: use this term for individual patterns.

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Plats (maps) example. Plats (maps)
Maps, charts, or plans that show the location, boundaries, and ownership of individual properties. (AAT ID: 300028125)

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Photograph albums example. Photograph albums
Albums made up of mounted photographs, with or without identifying information. (AAT ID: 300026695)

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Poems example. Poems
Written or oral compositions characterized by condensed language chosen for sound and suggestive power as well as meaning, and by the use of such literary techniques as structured meter, natural cadences, rhyme, or metaphor. (AAT ID: 300026451)

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Postal cards example. Postal cards
Cards sold by the post office with postage stamps already printed on them. (AAT ID: 300026821)

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Postcards example. Postcards
Cards on which a message may be written or printed for mailing without an envelope, usually at a lower rate than that for letters in envelopes. One side of the card frequently features a photographic image, advertisement, or graphic illustration. (AAT ID: 300026816)

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Posters example. Posters
Notices, usually decorative or pictorial, intended to be posted to advertise, promote, or publicize an activity, cause, product, or service; also, decorative, mass-produced prints intended for hanging. (AAT ID: 300027221)

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Prints (visual works) example. Prints (visual works)
Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes. Common types of prints include engravings, etchings, and lithographs. (AAT ID: 300041273)

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Programs (documents) example. Programs (documents)
Brief outlines or explanations of the order to be pursued, criteria for participation, or the subjects embraced in a given event or endeavor. Includes lists of the features composing a dramatic or other performance, with the names of participants. (AAT ID: 300027240)

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Reports example. Reports
Official or formal records of a special investigation, in the form of documents containing presentations of facts, proceedings, investigations, or events. (AAT ID: 300027267)

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Schedules (time plans) example. Schedules (time plans)
Plans of procedure, showing the sequence of items or operations and the time allotted for each. (AAT ID: 300027339)

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Scrapbooks example. Scrapbooks
Books or albums designed so that a variety of items may be affixed to the pages, including photographs, clippings, and other memorabilia. (AAT ID: 300027341)

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Sheet music example. Sheet music
Music printed on unbound sheets of paper. Compare to Songbooks. (AAT ID: 300026430)

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Slides (photographs) example. Slides (photographs)
Positive transparencies in mounts suitable for projection, usually 35mm film in a mount of 2 by 2 inches. An image on film or glass, usually positive, intended to be viewed by means of light passing through the image and base using a viewer or projector. (AAT ID: 300128371)

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Statutes example. Statutes
Acts of a legislature declaring, commanding, or prohibiting something, expressed according to the forms necessary to constitute law. (AAT ID: 300027891)

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Stereographs example. Stereographs
Refers to the most popular and common form of stereoscopic photographs, which are double photographs of the same image taken from two slightly different perspectives. Stereographs are distinctive among other stereoscopic photographs because they are photographic prints mounted on cards. (AAT ID: 300127197)

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Studio portraits example. Studio portraits
Portraits taken in a professional photographer's studio, often making use of backdrops or props. (AAT ID: 300223022)

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Telegrams example. Telegrams
Messages sent by telegraph. (AAT ID: 300026909)

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Tickets example. Tickets
Slips of paper or cardboard serving as evidence that the holder has paid a fare or admission or is entitled to some service. (AAT ID: 300027381)

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Tintypes example. Tintypes
Photographs produced by the wet collodion process and then placed directly on thin sheets of lacquered metal, usually iron. (AAT ID: 300134759)

NOTE: Tintypes are not to be confused with Daguerreotypes which utilize a copper plate for the image support.

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Topographic maps example. Topographic maps
Refers to maps representing a region at a level of detail or scale between a plan, which is a small area, and a chorographic map, which is a large regional map. Topographic maps include accurate representations of the location and shape of both natural and manmade features. The term refers to maps of various scales in different nations; it is generally limited to maps at scales of 1:500,000 or larger in the U.S. The term is often mistakenly interpreted to mean maps that only represent natural relief features. (AAT ID: 300028361)

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Tourist maps example. Tourist maps
Maps intended to introduce a region or locality to tourists, who are visitors to an unfamiliar place, particularly those who travel for pleasure or culture, usually to visit a number of places with the goal of experiencing places of interest and scenery. (AAT ID: 300028298)

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Transportation maps example. Transportation maps
Maps intended to assist people in the navigation and use of a particular city or region's transit system. Transit systems can include bus, street car, trolley, rail, or road systems. These maps often include route information, timetables, fare information, and local points of interest. (AAT ID: 300028300)

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Zoning maps example. Zoning maps
Maps delineating the boundaries of districts which, along with the zoning text, comprise the zoning ordinances. (AAT ID: 300028242)

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