Early years in St. Cloud (1857-1863). The six Benedictine women (4 sisters and 2 candidates) arrived in St. Cloud from St. Marys, Pennsylvania, earlier than expected; no convent had been prepared for them. John Tenvoorde's boarding house and entertainment hall (on the far left) was rented for ten months as the first convent in the Midwest frontier. Describing this convent, Prior Demetrius di Marogna, OSB, pastor of the German settlers in St. Cloud, wrote: "The house has two rooms and a spacious refectory with a built-on kitchen and above the refectory, a long attic room where ten or twelve school children's beds can easily be placed. Well, garden, and cellar are in the enclosure. But the rent for the year is $250.00...that price is cheap for here." (McDonald, page29) ..In this temporary abode, the sisters took in 6 boarders, and taught music, art, needlework, English, German, and religion to Catholics and non-Catholics in the neighborhood. The following year they were able to move to the renovated St. Mary's Church and Convent (Saint Benedict's Monastery Archives; McDonald, pages 27-34).
Early years in St. Joseph, Minnesota (1863-1880). This sketch of the layout of the first church/school/convent complex in St. Joseph was drawn in 1930 by Sister Paula Bechtold, OSB, from her memory of St. Joseph's Convent where she had lived as a young sister. This complex became the home of the Benedictine sisters when they moved from St. Cloud to St. Joseph in 1863. Gradually a small campus to the west of the complex developed -- consisting of laundry, bakery, summer house, chicken coop, barn, woodshed, and a well. Though the primary purpose of the sisters' coming to St. Joseph was to teach the children of the parish, the site served well as the beginnings of St. Benedict's Convent which continued to flourish in St. Joseph. Varied projects were begun in this simple convent complex: the school (the beginnings of the academy), care of orphans, and the Industrial School for Indian girls. In 1886, the old complex of log church and school was completely destroyed by fire. Although new housing had to be found for the orphans and the Industrial School, a new convent/academy had already been built in 1881-1882. With the completion of that new building, the name was changed from St. Joseph's Convent to St. Benedict's Convent (Saint Benedict's Monastery Archives; McDonald, pages 59-62, 70-72, 120-122).
Dr. Vespasian Smith was the third mayor of Duluth. Born Oct. 21, 1818 in Mt. Vernon, Ohio, he earned a medical degree from Western Reserve College in 1851 and practiced in Ohio and Superior, Wisconsin before moving to Duluth. In 1860 he received a government appointment to serve as physician to the Indians at the Bayfield Agency. It is said that there were no votes opposing his first election to mayor, in 1873, except his own. He was re-elected the following year. The financial panic of 1873 and dire financial circumstances of Duluth itself made for difficult mayoral terms, but he was said to have been a man of great common sense who was well suited to lead during such times. He also served on the State Board of Health for twenty years. Dr. Smith died in Duluth on Oct. 11, 1897.
St. Benedict's Mission, White Earth Indian Reservation (White Earth Band of Ojibwe). The various American Indian bands living in Canada and the Northwest Territory fought among themselves and the white settlers as Indian hunting grounds continued to be lost. The Dakotas finally settled farther west and the Ojibwe made land treaties with the U.S. government which reserved land around specific lakes in northern Minnesota for them. However, in 1867, the U.S. government ordered the Ojibwe to give up their scattered settlements and gather in one large reservation at White Earth. The reservation was then divided into agencies with government officials placed in charge. The bishop of the Northwest Territory sent Father Ignatius Tomazin to serve the Catholics at White Earth. Father Tomazin was a missionary from Yugoslavia who had worked among the Ojibwe for some years in the Crow Wing area and was known for his zeal in protecting their rights. While he was courageous in protesting the evils of discrimination practiced by the government agents, he perhaps lacked patience and diplomacy in his confrontations. As a result, Father Tomazin was forced off the reservation and transferred to Red Lake. In 1878, Abbot Rupert Seidenbusch, OSB, who had been appointed bishop of the newly-formed Northern Vicariate, asked St. John's Abbey to provide a priest and St. Benedict's Convent to provide teachers for White Earth. Fathers Aloysius Hermanutz and Joseph Buh from St. John's and Sisters Philomena Ketten and Lioba Brau from St. Benedict's were sent to meet the challenges of White Earth. Six days after they arrived, the sisters opened a day school for 15 pupils (12 girls and 3 boys), which increased to a total of 40 during the following week. (*The American Indian band in northern Minnesota prefer the name Anishinabe -- "Anishinaabeg" meaning "First People" -- while the French settlers called them Ojibwe, which is the more familiar name used in these records; and the government referred to them as Chippewa.) The sketch of the mission shown here is mounted on a card with the name, L. Bergman, Louisville, Kentucky, stamped on the back (SBMA, McDonald, pages 227-232), Pamphlet: "St. Benedict's Mission History, White Earth, MN, 1878-1978, as told by Benno Watrin, OSB (Printed by St. John' Abbey), 1978]
This drawing was done in the aftermath of October 5, 1869, Eastman Tunnel collapse. A tunnel connecting Nicollet and Hennepin islands collapsed on that day causing the need for considerable repair to be done to Hennepin Island and St. Anthony Falls. The repair work was finished in 1884, creating a protective apron over the falls.
Hennepin County Library, James K. Hosmer Special Collections Library
This drawing shows the a cross section of a canal used to feed water through turbines to generate power. The tunnel was embedded in the limestone near St. Anthony Falls with a base of concrete and shell of masonry. See also umn191811.
Hennepin County Library, James K. Hosmer Special Collections Library
This drawing was done by the deaf architect Olof Hanson, who was a teacher at the Minnesota Institute for Defectives (Deaf, Blind and Feeble-Minded) during 1891-1893. From left to right, the South and North Wings of Mott Hall are depicted. The central tower is not shown as it did not exist during the time period depicted. At the bottom of the drawing is the signature "O.H. del." Block letters at the bottom read: "Minnesota School For The Deaf And The Blind From 1873 to 1879." Cursive writing at the bottom reads: "Make the cut about 6-3/4" from x to x and leave off the ends," in reference to two "x" marks made on the left and right ends of the drawing.
Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf Alumni Association Museum
This drawing was done by the deaf architect Olof Hanson, who was a teacher at the Minnesota Institute for Defectives (Deaf, Blind and Feeble-Minded) during 1891-1893. From left to right, Mott Hall, the Power Plant Building, and Barron Hall are depicted. At the bottom of the drawing is the signature "O.H. del."
Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf Alumni Association Museum
A child representing the Board of Tax Levy places an apple labeled "$73,000 raise in salary" on his teacher's desk, and the teacher smiles at him. The Minnesota Gopher stands in the classroom door, tipping his hat.
A well-dressed, paunchy vote buyer stands in front of the Capitol Building, while the scrawny vote seller is chased away by a policeman armed with a billy-club. At the buyer's feet lies a scroll that states, "Public office is a private trust. When you start for it, land it or bust. Motto of Corrupt Official."
St. Paul, Chicago, and New York City are shown standing in front of Uncle Sam, holding U. S. Postal Savings account books. Nearby, the Minnesota Gopher holds a sign that reads, "See our Paul gopher the savings."
This cartoon pokes fun at the driving habits of the citizens of Minneapolis. A Minneapolis family is out for a spin; a farmer hauling a load of hay on his tractor honks at a man in a horse-driven wagon; a stylishly-dressed woman addresses her chauffeur; and a Minneapolis Messenger Service driver reads at the wheel.
Political candidate William Jennings Bryan stands before a dresser mirror, writing a note to himself, "Will you run again, Mr. Bryan? You guessed it that time, my boy." A figure, likely Bart himself, sketchbook in hand, watches through the window.
A pen and ink drawing of St. Joseph's Academy at its new location on Marshall and Western. This school, with later building additions, was the successor to the log cabin Bench Street school. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet owned and operated the school until 1971.
This cartoon, published on April 11, 1903, in the Minneapolis Journal, portrays Tom L. Johnson, Cleveland mayor and Democratic contender for his party's nomination for both the Ohio governor's race and the presidential election. Johnson is shown driving an automobile labeled "Auto-Reform" past "Aunty Democracy." Johnson's car is kicking up clouds of dust representing his radical ideas and Socialism. Behind, the Democratic donkey plods along, his ears marked "Old Ideas Dem." The published cartoon's caption read, "A little too fast for Aunty," with the sub-caption, "Aunty Democracy--The odor's pretty bad, Tom--Your new-fangled rig may be all right, but I guess I'll stick to the old donkey yet awhile."
In the interest of national security, the Democratic Party was largely in favor of the construction of the Panama Canal, but Senator Arthur Gorman from Maryland strongly opposed United States imperialism and, therefore, the canal project in Panama. In this cartoon, published in the Monday, December 21, 1903, edition of the Minneapolis Journal, Gorman is shown dressed as a king, brandishing a sword, and trying to pull a resistant Democratic Party donkey into the "Anti-Canal Fight."
Published on Thursday, March 24, 1904, this cartoon pokes fun at agriculture education. The published version's sub-caption reads, "Phineas (the Farm School Graduate)--'Isn't it strange that with all the wonderful development of the science of agriculture a man with a degree still has to milk a cow?'" A farmer sits on a stool in his barn, milking a cow. Hanging on the wall behind the cow is a diploma from the College of Agriculture bearing the name Phineas Stumpuller. Nearby are barnyard animals: a chicken, a duck, and a calf, who is nibbling contentedly on a page from Phineas's Thesis on Food Values of Milk Powder. The milk cow looks at the reader and says, ""That child just devours that scientific literature.""
Minnesota Governor John Lind and Minnesota State Democratic Central Committee Chairman L. A. Rosing are shown standing outside the Parker Stables, hanging onto a rope attached to the Minnesota Democratic donkey, who is being tempted by William Randolph Hearst with a pail marked by a dollar sign and containing ears of corn. This cartoon appeared in the Friday, April 1, 1904, edition of the Minneapolis Journal and refers to Minnesota political attitudes toward two of the contenders for nomination to run for president on the Democratic ticket, Hearst and Judge Parker.
Published on the front page of the March 2, 1904, edition of the Minneapolis Journal, this cartoon depicts a husband and wife having coffee at their dining room table. The husband is shaking salt onto the front page of the "Daily Newspaper," whose headlines include "Gigantic Victory for Russian Arms." In the published version, which includes caption and dialog, the wife asks, "Why, John, what in the world is the matter?" He replies, "I'm just taking this St. Petersburg story with a little salt." This is a reference to public response to unconfirmed reports coming from St. Petersburg, Russia, that Russian army forces had overwhelmingly defeated Japanese forces in a land battle in northern Korea, and that a sea battle near Port Arthur had resulted in the sinking of Japanese boats.
Published in the Thursday, May 12, 1904, edition of the Minneapolis Journal with the caption "The Hoosier School Boy," this cartoon refers to the Indiana Democratic state convention, where Hearst followers challenged the convention majority, which had supported Judge Parker, by claiming unfair treatment. The claims were defeated, and the convention "instructed for" Parker. National Committeeman Thomas Taggert is portrayed as the teacher, while Hearst and the Indiana Democratic Convention are portrayed as school boys, one a privileged prankster, the other a poor pupil who reads aloud the instructions for Parker and Taggert.
Published in the Tuesday, March 29, 1904, edition of the Minneapolis Journal, this cartoon is a reference to the efforts of several powerful American trusts to be allowed to move their legal headquarters to Havana in order to evade U. S. tax laws. A figure with octopus-like tentacles and representing New Jersey-based trusts is shown carrying baggage and other gear past a mosquito, who is sharpening his "stinger." A sign at the traveler's feet points to Cuba.
nautical; soundings; St. Louis river; Lake Superior; Minnesota Point; Oneota; shoreline; This map forms an inset to the larger map entitled, Survey of Lake Superior by Lieut. Henry W. Bayfield R. N. assisted by Mr. Philip Ed. Collins, Mid., between the years 1823 and 1825 Sheet 1. Scale of original inset is 1:49,300, or 4,108 ft. to 1 in. Scale of this photograph is 4,800 to 1 inch. J. H. Darling, April 22, 1904
University of Minnesota Duluth, Kathryn A. Martin Library, Northeast Minnesota Historical Collections
Published in the Journal Junior, a Saturday supplement for children, on September 9, 1905, this cartoon shows a boy hoeing a row of schoolbooks. At the end of the row is a sign that says, "Nine months row," a reference to the beginning of the school year. In the published version, the caption reads, "A Long Ro Wto [sic.]: Never mind; it won't seem so long from the other end."
Published on Tuesday, January 17, 1905, this cartoon shows a seated Senator Moses E. Clapp being applauded by members of the Minnesota State Senate and House. A child, representing Minnesota, pats his face. Above them hangs a sign reading "Clapp out and Clapp in. Minnesota Legislature." Clapp was chosen by a majority of the state legislators to succeed himself in the United States Senate.